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Upcoming changes

These rates were confirmed by Chancellor Philip Hammond in Budget 2018 and are subject to future change should the UK fail to reach an agreement with the EU over its exit.


Income tax bands and rates

The bands and rates at which people in England, Northern Ireland, Wales pay income tax will change for 2019/20, but it will be business as usual for taxpayers in Scotland.

The following income tax bands and thresholds will be in place from 6 April 2019:

Table 1: England, Northern Ireland & Wales

Band Taxable income 2019/20 Rate
Personal allowance Up to £12,500 0%
Basic rate £12,501 to £50,000 20%
Higher rate* £50,001 to £150,000 40%
Additional rate* Above £150,000 45%


Table 2: Scotland

Band Taxable income 2019/20 Rate
Personal allowance Up to £12,500 0%
Starter rate £12,501 to £14,549 19%
Basic rate £14,550 to £24,944 20%
Intermediate rate  £24,945 to £43,430  21%
Higher rate* £43,431 to £150,000 41% 
Top rate* Above £150,000  46% 

* The personal allowance is reduced by £1 for each £2 of income from £100,000 to £125,000 (2018/19, £123,700).

Table 3: Tax on dividends (throughout the UK)

Dividend allowance £2,000
Basic rate 7.5%
Higher rate 32.5%
Additional rate 38.1%


The £20,000 limit may also be used to invest in a lifetime ISA, which has a maximum allowance in 2019/20 of £4,000.


The lifetime allowance, which is the maximum amount an individual can draw from pensions without incurring extra tax charges, rises to £1.055 million from 6 April 2019.

Capital gains tax

The capital gains tax (CGT) annual exempt amount for individuals rises from £11,700 to £12,000 from 6 April 2019. At the same time, the annual exemption for trusts increase from £5,850 to £6,000.


Corporation tax

Financial year from 1 April 2019 2018
Corporation tax rate 19% 19%
Loans to participators 32.5% 32.5%

The intention to cut the rate of corporation tax to 17% in 2020/21 remains on course.


From 6 April 2019, the minimum employer contribution towards an employee’s workplace pension will increase from 2% to 3%, while eligible employees will see their minimum contributions increase from 3% to 5% of their pensionable earnings.

These contributions are mandatory for workers aged between 22 and state pension age, earning more than £10,000 a year.

National living wage rates

National living wage rates for all ages and apprentices are increasing from 1 April 2019.

2019/20 rates

  • Over-25s – £8.21
  • 21 to 24 – £7.70
  • 18 to 20 – £6.15
  • Under-18s – £4.35
  • Apprentice – £3.90*

*If under 19 or in the first year of apprenticeship.


From 1 April  2019  2018
Standard rate  20% 20% 
VAT fraction  1/6  1/6
Reduced rate e.g. on domestic fuel  5%  5% 
VAT fraction 1/21  1/21 

Taxable turnover limits

From 1 April 2019 2018
Registration (last 12 months or next 30 days) over £85,000 £85,000
Deregistration (next year) under £83,000 £83,000
Registration for distance selling into the UK (last 12 months or next 30 days) over £70,000 £70,000 
Annual and cash accounting schemes turnover limit £1.35m £1.35m 
Flat rate scheme turnover limit £150,000 £150,000

The VAT-registration threshold is to stay at £85,000 until April 2022.

A new VAT reverse charge for construction businesses will come into effect on 1 October 2019.

The reverse charge could put the onus on customers who buy supplies or construction services to account for VAT and report it to HMRC instead of the supplier. 

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